Science fundamentals with point by point knowledge record. Exhaustive list of learnt points. Condensed high school science; chemistry, physics and mathematics.


╼╤ Outline ╤╾

Mathematics

21 Chapters

Algebra 1

Polynomials the binomial theorem

Trigonometry

Differentiation and integration (Calculus)

Exponentials and Logarithms

Vectors 🛠️

Units and kinematics

Vector Quantity Scalar Quantity SI Units
Displacement Distance mm
Velocity Speed ms1ms^{-1}
Acceleration ms2ms^{-2}


Forces and Newton’s Laws

Collecting, representing and interpreting data

Probability

Physics

29 Chapters

Particles and nuclides

Fundamental particles

Waves

Combining waves

Chemistry

30 Chapters

Glossary

Common ions

Here are some common ions that are useful to know.

Positive ions Formula Negative ions Formula
Hydrogen H+H^+ Chloride ClCl^{-}
Sodium Na+Na^+ Bromide BrBr^-
Potassium K+K^+ Fluoride FF^-
Lithium Li+Li^+ Iodide II^-
Ammonium NH4NH_4^- Hydroxide OHOH^-
Silver Ag+Ag^+ Nitrate NO3NO_3^-
Barium Ba2+Ba^{2+} Oxide O2O^{2-}
Calcium Ca2+Ca^{2+} Sulfide S2S^{2-}
Copper (II) Cu2+Cu^{2+} Sulfate SO42SO_4^{2-}
Magnesium Mg2+Mg^{2+} Carbonate CO32CO_3^{2-}
Zinc Zn2+Zn^{2+} Hydrogen carbonate HCO3HCO_3^{-}
Lead Pb2+Pb^{2+} - -
Iron (II) Fe2+Fe^{2+} - -
Iron (III) Fe3+Fe^{3+} - -
Aluminium Al3+Al^{3+} - -

Basic atomic structure

Amount of substance TODO

Covalent Bonding and structures

Kinetics

Enthalpy profile diagram
Molecular energy probability distribution

Chemical equilibria and Le Chatelier’s principle

if a factor is changed which affects a system in equilibrium, the position of equilibrium will move in a direction so as to oppose this change.

Equilibrium constant KcK_c, for homogeneous systems

For reaction: aA+bBcC+dDaA+bB \rightleftharpoons cC+dD,
Kc=[C]c[D]d[A]a[B]bK_c=\frac{[C]^c [D]^d}{[A]^a[B]^b}, where [C][ C ] is the concentration of CC in mol dm^-3 in the mixture and c is the balancing number for CC and so on for D,AD,A and BB. Units of Kc=(moldm3)(c+d)(moldm3)(a+b)K_c=\frac{(mol \; dm^{-3})^{(c+d)}}{(mol \; dm^{-3})^{(a+b)}}.

Oxidation, reduction and redox equations

Oxidation Reduction
Gain of oxygen Loss of oxygen
Loss of hydrogen Gain of hydrogen
Loss of electrons Gain of electrons

Periodicity and Group 2

Period 3

Group 2 - alkaline earth metals

Selected uses of Group 2 elements and their compounds

Halogens

Redox reactions of halogens

Chlorine is slightly soluble in water and result pale green solution.

Mass medication? Fluoride in drinking water: pros are the prevention of tooth decay, cons are possible other health risks.

Displacement reactions

Displace means to push out…a more reactive element can displace a less reactive element from a compound.

Identification of halide ions

Identification tests

Organic chemistry introduction

Useful tables for organic nomenclature

Root name indictating the longest chain of carbon atoms:

Root name # of carbon atons
meth 1
eth 2
prop 3
but 4
pent 5
hex 6

Prefixes used to name side groups or substituents:

Prefix Side chain group or substituent group
methyl -CH3CH_3
ethyl -CH2CH3CH_2CH_3
propyl -CH2CH3CH3CH_2CH_3CH_3
fluoro -FF
chloro -ClCl
bromo -BrBr
iodo -II

Prefixes for the # of side chains or groups:

Prefix # of same side chains or groups present
di two
tri three
tetra four
penta five
hex six

Functional groups:

Homologous series Functional group Suffix Example
carboxylic acid OH-C=O -oic acid propanoic acid
ester -OH-C=O -oate ethyl ethanoate
acyl chloride Cl-C=O -oly chloride butanoyl chloride
nitrile -C\equivN -nitrile propanenitrile
aldehyde H-C=O -al ethanal
ketone -C=O -one propanone
alcohol -OH -ol butanol
amine -NH2NH_2 -amine ethylamine
alkene >C=C< -ene propene
halogenoalkane -C-X (X=halogen) named as a substituted hydrocarbon 1-bromobutane

Alkanes (CnH2n+2C_nH_{2n+2})

A homologous series is a series of carbon-based compounds which have the same general formula and functional group. They have similar chemical properties and show a gradation in physical properties with successive members differing by a CH2CH_2 group. Alkanes are an example of a homologous series. All members of the series have the general formula CnH2n+2C_nH_{2n+2} While they do not strictly have a functional group, all alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons containing only C-C or C-H single bonds. They all react with halogens in UV light to form the hydrogen halide and a halogenoalkane. As the series is descended the physical properties change slightly; the first four members of the alkanes are gases at room temperature, C5–C17 liquids and the remaining members are waxy solids with increasing melting points.

Halogenoalkanes

Synthesis and reactions

Reaction summary

Reagent Conditions Mechanism Product Effects
Potassium hydroxide Aqueous reagent, dissolve halogenoalkane in a little ethanol, reflux Nucleophilic substitution alcohol -
Potassium cyanide Aqueous reagent, dissolve halogenoalkane in a little ethanol, reflux Nucleophilic substitution nitrile carbon chain increases by one
Concentrated ammonia Excess ammonia, in a sealed tube, under pressure Nucleophilic substitution amine excess ammonia encourages a high yield of primary amine; discourages production of further substituted amines
Potassium hydroxide Dissolve reagent and reactants in ethanol, no water present Elimination alkene product may be a mix of position isomers

Alkenes (CnH2nC_nH_{2n})

Polymer recycling code Uses
Poly(ethene) (PE) plastic bags, film wrapping, kitchenware
Poly(propene) (PP) ropes, thinsulate clothing, carpets, crates, furniture
Poly(chloroethene)(PVC) wellington boots, raincoats, drainpipes, frames, door frames, electrical wire insulation
Poly(phenylethene) (PS) expanded polystyrene is used for insulation in houses and packing, unexpanded polystyrene is used for toys and containers

Reactions of the alkenes

Electrophilic addition of polar electrophiles to an unsymmetrical alkene produces two different products, one of which may be present in a greater proportion (the major product) than the other (the minor product).

Alcohols (CnH2n+1OHC_nH_{2n+1}OH)

Physical properties of the alcohols

Classification

Type of alcohol General structure Example Position of OH group
primary alcohol, 1 R group RCH2(OH)RCH_2(OH) butan-1-ol, CH3CH2CH2CH2(OH)CH_3CH_2CH_2CH_2(OH) –OH is at the end of the chain
secondary alcohol, 2 R groups CR2H(OH)CR_2H(OH) butan-2-ol, CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3CH_3CH_2CH(OH)CH_3 –OH is positioned along the length of the chain
tertiary alcohol, 3 R groups CR3(OH)CR_3(OH) 2-methylpropan-2-ol, CH3C(OH)(CH3)CH3CH_3C(OH)(CH_3)CH_3 –OH is positioned at a branch in the chain

Reactions

Oxidation:

Acidified potassium or sodium dichromate(VI) solution is a suitable oxidising agent for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. The dichromate(VI) ion, Cr2O72− , is orange in aqueous solution and is reduced to the green chromium(III) ion, Cr3+, as the alcohol is oxidised.

Testing for aldehydes and ketones:

Test Observations with aldehyde Ketone
warm gently with Tollens’ reagent silver mirror forms on sides of test tube solution remains colourless
warm getnly with Fehling’s solution orange-red precipitate forms solution remains blue

Elimination reactions with alcohols:

Initially one of the lone pairs of electrons on oxygen picks up a hydrogen ion from the sulfuric acid and is protonated. A negative hydrogen sulfate ion is produced (HSO4HSO_4^-). A water molecule is lost from the protonated alcohol forming a carbocation. Finally a hydrogen sulfate ion removes an H+ ion from the carbocation and a double bond forms between two carbon atoms.

Industrial production of ethanol

Bioethanol:

Organic analysis

Homologous series Reagent Observations before test After test
alkenes bromine water orange solution colourless solution
primary / secondary alcohols acidified potassium dichromate orange solution green solution
tertiary alcohols acidified potassium dichromate orange solution remains orange
aldehydes Tollens’ reagent colourless solution silver precipiate
aldehydes Fehling’s solution blue solution orange-red ppt formed
carboxylic acids solid sodium carbonate white solid solid dissapears, bubbles of gas evolved (effervescence). Gas turns lime water from colourless to cloudy


Last edited :- Sat, 16 Apr 2022 21:08:59 BST